toolbox world wide web



An outline of the theoretical background of
the TICKLE Toolbox

Boer, Henk – PABO Arnhem/Netherlands

Mészáros, György, Eszterházy Károly College/Eger, Hungary



1. Introduction


Lifelong Learning Programme

The Tickle project

2. Theory: interpretation

3. The concept of culture

4. The interpretation of multi- and interculturalism

5. Ecological pedagogy

6. Identity

7. Intercultural teacher education

8. Our intercultural experience


What is TICKLE?

Who is it for?


Can we solve problems?

What exactly TICKLE did?

Our special experience

9. Literature

Useful Links



1. Introduction
Lifelong Learning Programme

The tickle project is part of the Lifelong Learning Programme and is a Multilateral Comenius project with seven participating teacher Training Institutes and Universities in six countires. The mission of LLP 2007 – 2013 has the following specific objectives:

(a) to contribute to the development of quality lifelong learning, and to promote high performance, innovation and a European dimension in systems and practices in the
(b) to support the realisation of a European area for lifelong learning;
(c) to help improve the quality, attractiveness and accessibility of the opportunities for lifelong learning available within Member States;
(d) to reinforce the contribution of lifelong learning to social cohesion, active citizenship, intercultural dialogue, gender equality and personal fulfilment;
(e) to help promote creativity, competitiveness, employability
and the growth of an entrepreneurial spirit;
(f) to contribute to increased participation in lifelong learning by people of all ages, including those with special needs and disadvantaged groups, regardless of their socio-economic background;
(g) to promote language learning and linguistic diversity;





(h) to support the development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practice for lifelong learning;
(i) to reinforce the role of lifelong learning in creating a sense of European citizenship based on understanding and respect for human rights and democracy, and encouraging tolerance and respect for other peoples and cultures;
(j) to promote cooperation in quality assurance in all sectors of education and training in Europe;
(k) to encourage the best use of results, innovative products and processes and to exchange good practice in the fields covered by the Lifelong Learning Programme, in order to improve the quality of education and training.
The aim of LLLP is to reach the most competitive and dynamic economy of the world with qualitative better jobs and a higher level of social cohesion. Our Tickle project is to enhance this higher level of intercultural cohesion through education. In education the highest level of social cohesion is to be seen in inclusion as seen in the Salamanca statement.


The Salamanca Statement and its consequences for intercultural education

In 1994 over 300 participants – including 92 governments and 25 international organisations – met in Salamanca, Spain, with the purpose of furthering the objectives of inclusive education. The resulting Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) was framed by a rights-based perspective on education. Although the Statement focused on children described as having ‘special needs’, it asserted from the outset its commitment to: Reaffirming the right to education of every individual, as enshrined in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and renewing the pledge made by the world community at the 1990 World Conference on Education for All to ensure that right for all regardless of individual differences (UNESCO, 1994, p. vii). Evans et al. (1999) have noted that the Salamanca Statement and other United Nations proclamations have had a ‘powerful influence’ on international perspectives on inclusion.
In an English context, the influence of the Salamanca Statement can be seen in the work of the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE), which defines inclusive education as principally a human rights issue. CSIE's manifesto, Ten Reasons for Inclusion, states in its headline that ‘Inclusive education is a human right, it's good education and it makes good social sense’ (CSIE, 2004a). The manifesto then expands on the ‘human rights’ issue by providing a further list of imperatives:

  • All children have the right to learn together.

  • Inclusive education is a moral imperative, it argues, because:

While CSIE's focus is primarily on young people with disabilities and learning difficulties, the organisation's language is strongly resonant of the language of civil rights used, for example, in the United States in relation to equality of opportunity for black students since the 1950s. In particular, it echoes the crucial decision made in 1954 by the US Supreme Court, in Brown v. The Board of Education, which established not only that black children had a right to education but also that they had a right to the same education as that received by white children. In declaring that ‘separate can never be equal’, the Brown judgment led to a variety of affirmative-action policies in the US educational system, which had an impact not only on curriculum organisation and opportunities in US primary and secondary schools, but also on universities’ admissions policies.
From an intercultural perspective we describe two imperatives as followed:

  • Children should not be devalued or discriminated against by being excluded or sent away because of their culture, race or religion.

  • There are no legitimate reasons to separate children for their education. Children belong together – with advantages and benefits for everyone. They do not need to be segregated from each another. (CSIE, 2004a).