toolbox world wide web


Name of the tool

Cultural based school curriculum  (CBSC)


Links to the keystones
Attitudes, awareness and knowledge

During and after the development of the tool, the tool is supposed to belong to the teacher student as a part of extended professional role where attitudes, awareness and knowledge are keystones. Action research is the strategy to push forward the methodological boundaries.

Aim of tool/ Brief overall description

    development of a culture based school curriculum

    Brief overall description:
    Step 1.  Student teachers are involved in describing, critically analyzing and advocating national curriculum texts into local school curriculum texts.
    Step 2. Student teachers and pupils develop, formulate and work in school practice with a culture based school curriculum. Parents are involved.

Main methods

Critical emancipatory action research to analyze the national curriculum and the school practice.
1. Identify the area of interest.
2. Develop a general plan for the steps needed.
3. Implement the steps.
4. Reconnaissance – what are the effects?
5. Revise general idea – develop amended plan.



Description of the process and the possible stepping stones


Step-by-step: All have the parts of curriculum texts that are focused. Critical reflections on: What does the national curriculum say? What is the experience of cultural background in the daily work at school? What steps are possible to take during a specific time period?





    • National Curriculum (selected parts). Critical analyze form. Evaluation form


Kemmis, S. (1993). Action Research and Social Movement. A chellenge for Policy Research. Education Policy analysis. Vol.1.Nr.1. ISSN 1068-2341
Kemmis Carr, W. and Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: Education, knowledge and action research, Falmer, London.
Elliott, J. (1978) What is action-research in schools? Journal of Curriculum studies, 10. pp 355-7
Elliott, J. (1991) Action research for Educational change. Allen and Unwin, London.
Schön, D. (1983) The reflective practioner: How professionals think in action, Basic Books, New York.


Gunilla Johansson, Marja Liisa Lejon


Department for educational sciences, Luleå University of Technology